Research Papers

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Below are a range of GW-supported publications that provide further pharmacologic background to the current avenues of research in which the Company is engaged:

Cannabidiol is an investigational product and not approved for use for any indication in any country.The publications provided on this website are for your information and interest only and comprise publications authored by or sponsored by GW Pharmaceuticals. This is not intended to be a comprehensive list, and they do not constitute and must not be relied on as medical or other professional advice. Each article cited is the property of its respective publisher. GW is not responsible for any technical or analytical inaccuracies in any publication not authored by GW, or the completeness of the selection of referenced publications.  Links to sites outside of GW are provided as a resource to the viewer. GW accepts no responsibility for the content of linked sites.


Cannabidivarin (CBDV) suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression.
Amada N, Yamasaki Y, Williams CM, Whalley BJ. PeerJ. 2013 Nov 21;1:e214.
Cannabidivarin is anticonvulsant in mouse and rat in vitro  and in seizure models.
Hill AJ, Mercier MS, Hill TD, Glyn SE, Jones NA, Yamasaki Y, Futamura T, Duncan M, Stott CG, Stephens GJ, Williams CM, Whalley BJ. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Dec;167(8):1629-42.
Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures
Jones NA, Glyn SE, Akiyama S, Hill TD, Hill AJ, Weston SE, Burnett MD, Yamasaki Y, Stephens GJ, Whalley BJ, Williams CM.Seizure. 2012 Jun;21(5):344-52
Phytocannabinoids as novel therapeutic agents in CNS disorders
Hill AJ, Williams CM, Whalley BJ, Stephens GJ. Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Jan;133(1):79-97
Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabivarin suppresses in vitro epileptiform and in vivo seizure activity in adult rats
Hill AJ, Weston SE, Jones NA, Smith I, Bevan SA, Williamson EM, Stephens GJ, Williams CM, Whalley BJ. Epilepsia. 2010 Aug;51(8):1522-32.
Cannabidiol displays antiepileptiform and antiseizure properties in vitro and in vivo
Jones NA, Hill AJ, Smith I, Bevan SA, Williams CM, Whalley BJ, Stephens GJ. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Feb;332(2):569-77.
The phytocannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin modulates inhibitory neurotransmission in the cerebellum 
Ma YL, Weston SE, Whalley BJ, Stephens GJ. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 May;154(1):204-15.


Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function.
M.R. Pazos, V. Cinquina, A. Gómez , R. Layunta, M. Santos, J. Fernández-Ruiz, José Martínez-Orgado. Neuropharmacology, 2012.  63(5): p. 776-83.
Cannabidiol protects an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier from oxygen-glucose deprivation via PPARγ and 5‑HT1A receptors.
Hind WH, England TE, O’Sullivan SE. Br J Pharmacol, 2016. 173(5): p. 815-25.
Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia.
Hector Lafuente, M Ruth Pazos, Antonia Alvarez, Nagat Mohammed, Martín Santos, Maialen Arizti, Francisco J Alvarez and Jose Martinez-Orgado. Front Neurosci, 2016. 10: p. 323.
Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in hypoxic ischemic insult. The therapeutic window in newborn mice.
Mohammed N, Ceprián M, Jimenez L, Pazos MR, Saugstad OD, Martínez-Orgado J. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2016 (Epub ahead of print).
Short-term effects of cannabidiol after severe global hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets.
Håvard T. Garberg, Marianne U. Huun, Javier Escobar, Jose Martinez-Orgado, Else-Marit Løberg, Rønnaug Solberg and Ola Didrik Saugstad. Pediatr Res, 2016 (Epub ahead of print).
Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic newborn pigs: Role of 5HT1A and CB2 receptors.
Pazos, Mohammed, Lafuente, Santos, Martinez-Pinilla, Moreno, Valdizan, Romero, Pazos, Franco, Hillard, Alvarez, Martinez-Orgado - Neuropharmacology, 2013. 71:p. 282-91


Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease.
Borrelli F, Fasolino I, Romano B, Capasso R, Maiello F, Coppola D, Orlando P, Battista G, Pagano E, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013 May 1;85(9):1306-16.
Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: effects on TRPV3 and TRPV4 and their potential relevance to gastrointestinal inflammation.
De Petrocellis L, Orlando P, Moriello AS, Aviello G, Stott C, Izzo AA, Di Marzo V. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012 Feb;204(2):255-66.
Gut feelings about the endocannabinoid system.
Di Marzo V, Piscitelli F. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011 May;23(5):391-8
The effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis.
Jamontt JM, Molleman A, Pertwee RG, Parsons ME. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun;160(3):712-23
Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis.
Borrelli F, Aviello G, Romano B, Orlando P, Capasso R, Maiello F, Guadagno F, Petrosino S, Capasso F, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009 Nov;87(11):1111-21.
Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice.
Capasso R, Borrelli F, Aviello G, Romano B, Scalisi C, Capasso F, Izzo AA. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul;154(5):1001-8.
Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis.
Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, et al. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45(1):50-2.
Pure Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin and a Cannabis sativa extract with high content in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin inhibit nitrite production in murine peritoneal macrophages
Romano B, Pagano S, Orlando P, Capasso R, Cascio MG, Pertwee R, Marzo VD, Izzo AA, Borrelli F. Pharmacol Res, 2016. 113(Pt A): p. 199-208.
Effect of Non-psychotropic Plant-derived Cannabinoids on Bladder Contractility: Focus on Cannabigerol.
 Pagano, E., V. Montanaro, A. Di Girolamo, A. Pistone, V. Altieri, J.K. Zjawiony, A.A. Izzo, and R. Capasso. Nat Prod Commun, 2015. 10(6): p. 1009-12.
The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis.
Romano, B., F. Borrelli, I. Fasolino, R. Capasso, F. Piscitelli, M. Cascio, R. Pertwee, D. Coppola, L. Vassallo, P. Orlando, V. Di Marzo, and A. Izzo. Br J Pharmacol, 2013. 169(1): p. 213-29.
Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice.
Izzo, A.A., R. Capasso, G. Aviello, F. Borrelli, B. Romano, F. Piscitelli, L. Gallo, F. Capasso, P. Orlando, and V. Di Marzo. Br J Pharmacol, 2012. 166(4): p. 1444-60.
Inhibitory effect of standardized cannabis sativa extract and its ingredient cannabidiol on rat and human bladder contractility.
Capasso, R., G. Avi
ello, F. Borrelli, B. Romano, M. Ferro, L. Castaldo, V. Montanaro, V. Altieri, and A.A. Izzo. Urology, 2011. 77(4): p. 1006 e91006 e15.


Enhancing the activity of cannabidiol and other cannabinoids in vitro through modifications to drug combinations and treatment schedules.
Scott KA, Shah S, Dalgleish AG, Liu WM. Anticancer Res. 2013 Oct;33(10):4373-80.
Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug.
Massi P, Solinas M, Cinquina V, Parolaro D. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Feb;75(2):303-12
Cannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect.
Solinas M, Massi P, Cinquina V, Valenti M, Bolognini D, Gariboldi M, Monti E, Rubino T, Parolaro D. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 21;8(10):e76918.
Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms.
Solinas M, Massi P, Cantelmo AR, Cattaneo MG, Cammarota R, Bartolini D, Cinquina V, Valenti M, Vicentini LM, Noonan DM, Albini A, Parolaro D. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Nov;167(6):1218-31.
Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.
Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Gallo L, Piscitelli F, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 Aug;90(8):925-34.
A combined preclinical therapy of cannabinoids and temozolomide against glioma.
Torres S, Lorente M, Rodríguez-Fornés F, Hernández-Tiedra S, Salazar M, García-Taboada E, Barcia J, Guzmán M, Velasco G. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011 Jan;10(1):90-103.
Stimulation of the midkine/ALK axis renders glioma cells resistant to cannabinoid antitumoral action.
Lorente M, Torres S, Salazar M, Carracedo A, Hernández-Tiedra S, Rodríguez-Fornés F, García-Taboada E, Meléndez B, Mollejo M, Campos-Martín Y, Lakatosh SA, Barcia J, Guzmán M, Velasco G. Cell Death Differ. 2011 Jun;18(6):959-73.
The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation via ERK.
Andradas C, Caffarel MM, Pérez-Gómez E, Salazar M, Lorente M, Velasco G, Guzmán M, Sánchez C. Oncogene. 2011 Jan 13;30(2):245-52
Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition.
Caffarel MM, Andradas C, Mira E, Pérez-Gómez E, Cerutti C, Moreno-Bueno G, Flores JM, García-Real I, Palacios J, Mañes S, Guzmán M, Sánchez C. Mol Cancer. 2010 Jul 22;9:196
Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol. 
Romano B, Borrelli F, Pagano E, Cascio MG, Pertwee RG, Izzo AA.Phytomedicine. 2014 Apr 15;21(5):631-9
Colon carcinogenesis is inhibited by the TRPM8 antagonist cannabigerol, a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic cannabinoid.
Borrelli F, Pagano E, Romano B, Panzera S, Maiello F, Coppola D, De Petrocellis L, Buono L, Orlando P, Izzo AA. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Dec;35(12):2787-97
The combination of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances the anticancer effects of radiation in an orthotopic murine glioma model. 
Scott KA, Dalgleish AG, Liu WM. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 Dec;13(12):2955-67
Inhibiting Heat Shock Proteins Can Potentiate the Cytotoxic Effect of Cannabidiol in Human Glioma Cells.
Scott KA, Dennis JL, Dalgleish AG, Liu WM. Anticancer Res. 2015 Nov;35(11):5827-37
Cannabinoids synergize with carfilzomib, reducing multiple myeloma cells viability and migration.
Nabissi M, Morelli MB, Offidani M, Amantini C, Gentili S, Soriani A, Cardinali C, Leoni P, Santoni G.

Psychiatric Illness

Cannabinoids and Schizophrenia: Therapeutic Prospects.
Robson PJ, Guy GW, Di Marzo V. Curr Pharm Des. 2013 Jun 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.
Leweke FM, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, Muhl D, Gerth CW, Hoyer C, Klosterkötter J, Hellmich M, Koethe D. Transl Psychiatry. 2012 Mar 20;2:e94
Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.
Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012 Dec 5;367(1607):3364-78.
Neural mechanisms for the cannabinoid modulation of cognition and affect in man: a critical review of neuroimaging studies.
Bhattacharyya S, Atakan Z, Martin-Santos R, Crippa JA, McGuire PK. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(32):5045-54.
Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour.
Deiana S, Watanabe A, Yamasaki Y, Amada N, Arthur M, Fleming S, Woodcock H, Dorward P, Pigliacampo B, Close S, Platt B, Riedel G. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Feb;219(3):859-73.
Cannabidiol and clozapine reverse MK-801-induced deficits in social interaction and hyperactivity in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Gururajan A, Taylor DA, Malone DT. J Psychopharmacol. 2012 Oct;26(10):1317-32.
Opposite effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on human brain function and psychopathology.
Bhattacharyya S, Morrison PD, Fusar-Poli P, Martin-Santos R, Borgwardt S, Winton-Brown T, Nosarti C, O' Carroll CM, Seal M, Allen P, Mehta MA, Stone JM, Tunstall N, Giampietro V, Kapur S, Murray RM, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, Atakan Z, McGuire PK. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010 Feb;35(3):764-74.
Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug.
Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, Hallak JE, Moreira FA, Guimarães FS. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006 Apr;39(4):421-9.
Cannabidiol reverses MK-801-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition in mice.
Long LE, Malone DT, Taylor DA. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Apr;31(4):795-803.


The propagation, characterisation and optimisation of Cannabis Sativa L as a phytopharmaceutical
PhD thesis, Dr David Potter
Handbook of Cannabis
Pertwee R ed.. Oxford University Press (ISBN: 978-0-19-96626)